If they do not lift their hand from the paper, they can smudge the ink.

1. smudge  [smʌdʒ] (v.) if you smudge something such as ink, or it smudges, you make it spread across the page in an untidy way by touching it when it is still wet

    (v.) to put a dirty mark on a clean surface

    (n.) a small untidy mark made by a substance such as dirt or ink

    smudgy (adj.)

Today many languages like Arabic and Hebrew are written horizontally from the right to the left.

2. horizontal [͵hɑrəˋzɑnt!] (adj.) straight and parallel to the ground

    Example: Draw a horizontal line across the page.

    Example: horizontal stripes

    horizontally (adv.)

    horizon (n.)

    1. the horizon the line in the distance where the sky seems to meet the earth

    2. horizons [ plural ] the limits of your experience

    broaden/ expand your horizons

    Example: Travelling has really helped to expand her horizons.

    on the horizon in the near future

    Example: I've got some job possibilities on the horizon.

Chinese and Japanese can also be written vertically from the right to the left.

3. vertical (adj.) standing, pointing, or moving straight up

    Example: vertical lines

    Example: The pilots were being trained in vertical take-off.

    vertically (adv.)

    Example: The rocks rose almost vertically from the lake.

That is almost exactly the same as the one-in-ten ratio today.

4. ratio  [ˋreʃo] (n.) a relationship between two things expressed as two numbers or amounts

    Example: a teacher-student ratio of 1:20 ( = 1 teacher for every 20 students )

Professors should not give preferential treatment to the students they like.

5. preferential [͵prɛfəˋrɛnʃəl] (adj.) giving one person or group an advantage over others

    preferential treatment

    Example: Europe has given Caribbean banana growers preferential treatment for more than 20 years.

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