Many hearing-impaired people use sign languages, in which gestures do the work of the sound system of spoken languages.

1. hearing-impaired (adj.) unable to hear as well as most people can. Many people prefer this word to deaf.

    impair [ɪmˋpɛr] (v.) [ formal ] to make something less good or effective, especially by causing damage that affects the way something works

    Example: The condition does not seem to impair his ability to work.

    impaired (adj.) if your body's ability to do something is impaired, you are not fully able to do it

    Example: methods of correcting impaired vision 矯正受損視力的方法

    Example: Signing is provided for the hearing-impaired.

    impairment (n.) the fact that a part of your body is unable to do something fully 

Languages are always changing and evolving, but they change quite slowly.

2. evolve  [ɪˋvɑlv] (v.) to gradually change and develop over a period of time

    Example: Computer software will continue to evolve in response to users' needs.

    Example: The research project evolved from a concept first proposed in 1995.

    (v.) when a type of plant or animal evolves, its physical form changes over a long period of time

    Example: Modern humans evolved from monkeys over millions of years.

    evolution (n.) the way in which something gradually changes and develops

    evolutionary (adj.) connected with a gradual process of change and development

The English word “meat” once referred to food in general.

3. refer to [ phrasal vb ] [ refer to sth ] to describe something or be about something

    Example: These notes refer to the case of a teenage murderer.

    [ refer to sth/ sb ] to mention someone or something when you are speaking or writing

    Example: She referred to the subject several times during her speech.

    Example: When I said someone was stupid, I didn't refer to you.

    Example: In some countries, students refer to their professors by their first names.

    Example: Jack was careful not to refer to the woman by name.

    [ refer to sb/ sth as ]

    Example: We refer to Da Vinci as the greatest genius of all time.

    [ refer to sth ] [ formal ] to look at a book, map etc for information

    Example: If you meet a new word, please refer to the dictionary.

                                                                   = consult the dictionary.

                                                                   = look it up in the dictionary.

    [ refer sb to sb/ sth ] to send someone to another person or place in order to get help, information, or advice

    Example: The doctor referred me to a skin specialist.

This is especially bewildering for older people.

4. bewilder  [bɪˋwɪldɚ] (v.) to make someone feel confused

    Example: Too much choice just bewilders you.

    bewildering (adj.) a bewildering situation is confusing and difficult to understand

    Example: Her first day at work was extremely bewildering. 她上班的第一天手足無措。

    (adj.) a bewildering range or set of things is very large and offers too many choices

    Example: a bewildering array of vegetables

    bewilderingly (adv.)

    bewildered (adj.) confused and not certain what to do

    Example: Many of the refugees looked bewildered and frightened.

    bewilderment (n.) a feeling of being extremely confused

    in bewilderment

    Example: He stared at us in complete bewilderment.

Specialists and experts from many different fields are needed to work on these complex schemes.

5. scheme (n.) a plan developed by a government or large organization in order to provide a particular service for people

    Example: The government's biggest scheme is to build a dam to store water for agriculture.

    Example: The proposed scheme should solve the parking problem.

    Example: Have you joined the company pension scheme?

    (n.) a plan for achieving something, especially something illegal or dishonest

    Example: It's sounds like just another crazy money-making scheme.

    (v.) to make secret plans to achieve something, especially in a dishonest way: plot  +against

    Example: She's convinced that they're scheming against her.

    scheme to do sth

    Example: The king's enemies were scheming to take power from him.

    schemer (n.), scheming (adj.)




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