1. urban (adj.) [ usually befor noun ] relating to towns and cities, or happening there
Example: People moved to the urban areas for jobs.
Example: Urban poverty is on the increase. ─ opposite rural
rural (adj.) relating to the countryside or in the countryside
Example: people live in remote rural areas 生活在偏遠地區的人們
2. con, com = together
compose (v.) [ formal ] to form something : make up
be composed of
Example: Muscle is composed of two different types of protein(蛋白質).
compose your thoughts to think carefully about something before you decide what to say or do
compose yourself to make yourself calm after being very angry, upset, or nervous
(v.) to write a piece of music
Example: The song was specially composed for their wedding.
commemorate (v.) to show that you remember an important person or event by having a special ceremony, or creating a special object
Example: A huge bronze statue commemorating the poet stands in the main square.
commemoration (n.) something intended to honour and remember an important person or event
in commemoration of
Example: She wrote a poem in commemoration of the battle.
commemorative (adj.) produced for an important event to help you remember it
Example: a commemorative stamp
(adj.) done in order to honour and remember an important person or event
compile (v.) to make something such as a list or book by bringing together information from many different places
Example: The database was compiled from statistics published ty the Tourist Board.
compilation (n.) a set of things such as songs or stories produced by different people
Example: The CD is a compilation of disco hits from the 70s.
(n.) the process of compiling a book using different pieces of information or facts
Example: the compilation of a dictionary
3. ini- = begin
initiate (v.) [ formal ] to make something start
Example: The company initiated a management training programme for small businesses.
(n.) someone who has recently joined an organization or group and is learning about it
initiation (n.) [ formal ] the act of making something start, especially an official process +of
Example: Youth Councils will be set up for the initiation of these projects.
initial (adj.) [ only before noun ] happening at the begining of a process, or when you first see or hear about something
Example: At the initial stage of the project not everyone had access to a computer.
initial reaction/ response/ impression
Example: My initial reaction was to panic.
(n.) the first letter of someone's name, especially their first name
4. bio = life
biosphere (n.) [ science ] the parts of the Earth's surface and atmosphere where plant and animal life can exist
autobiography (n.) a book about your life that you write yourself
biodiversity (n.) the variety of different types of plant and animal life in a particular region
5. di = two
divide or devide up (v.) to separate people or things into smaller groups or parts
divide sth into pairs/ groups/ parts etc
Example: Divide the class into three groups.
(v.) to separate something into smaller parts and share the parts between people
Example: Work out how you would like to divide the money.
divide sth between/ among sb
Example: After his death his property was divided among his children.
(v.) to keep two or more areas or parts separate
divide sth from sth
Example: the wall that divides the playground and the sports field
(v.) to do a mathematical calculation to find out how many times a number contains a smaller number
Example: 10 divided by 2 is 5.
(v.) to be the cause of disagreement between people, especially within a group
Example: a subject that divided the nation
(v.) if a cell in a plant or animal divides, it separates into two cells so that a new cell is formed
(n.) [ usually singular ] an important difference or disagreement between two people or groups
6. bene- = good
benefaction (n.) [ formal ] a present of money
benevolent [bəˋnɛvələnt] (adj.) [ formal ] willing to help and be generous towards people
(adj.) used about people's behaviour and actions
Example: a benevolent smile 和藹的微笑
benevolence (n.), benevolently (adv.)
benefactor (n.) someone who helps a person or organization by giving them money
7. mal(e)- = bad
maladjusted [͵mæləˋdʒʌstɪd] (adj.) unable to deal with ordinary social situation or relationships
malicious [məˋlɪʃəs] (adj.) unkind and showing a strong feeling of wanting to hurt someone
Example: malicious gossip/ rumours
malaria (n.) a serious illness caused by being bitten by a mosquito, usually in a hot country
8. scope = to look
horoscope [ˋhɔrə͵skop] (n.) a descripition of someone's character and the likely events in their life that is based on astrology ( = the position of the stars and the date they were born )
telescope (n.) a piece of equipment shaped like a tube that you look through to make distant objects look closer and larger
microscope (n.) a piece of equipment for looking at things that are too small to see normally
under a microscope
Example: Although invisible to the human eye, the virus can be seen clearly when examined under a microscope.
under the microscope if someone or something is under the microscope, people are examining them very carefully
Example: The whole legal system should be put under the microscope.